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Glossary of Racing Terms

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earmuffs: A piece of equipment that covers a horse's ears to prevent her from hearing distracting sounds.

eased: A horse who is gently pulled up during a race.

easily: Running or winning without being pressed by rider or opposition.

Eclipse Awards: In the United States: the Thoroughbred racing's year-end awards, honoring the top horses in 11 separate categories. The categories include: leading owner, trainer, jockey, apprentice jockey and breeder. Members of the media who have demonstrated excellence in their coverage of the sport are also eligible for Eclipse Awards in their categories. The awards' namesake is Eclipse, the great 18th-century racehorse and sire who was undefeated in 18 career starts and sired the winners of 344 races. Any Eclipse Award winning horse is referred to as a Champion.

EEE (Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis): One of several different types of encephalomyelitis that are extremely contagious, causing sickness and death in horses by affecting the central nervous system. EEE is spread by mosquitoes and can affect humans. Can be prevented by annual vaccinations.

EIPH: Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. See bleeder.

elbow: The topmost joint in the foreleg, formed by the humerus, ulna and radius. The elbow joint's action is that of a hinge, providing flexion and extension for the forelegs.

eligible: Qualified to start in a race, according to conditions.

endoscope: An instrument used for direct visual inspection of a hollow organ or body cavity such as the upper airway or stomach. A fiber optic endoscope is comprised of a long, flexible tube that has a series of lenses and light at the end to allow the veterinarian to view and photograph the respiratory system through the airway. Other internal organs may be viewed through a tiny surgical opening. A video endoscope has a small camera at the tip of the instruments.

engagement: 1) Stakes nomination. 2) Riding commitment.

entire: An ungelded horse. In Europe, where geldings are not permitted to enter certain races, the race conditions might read "Entire colts and fillies."

entry fee: Money paid by an owner to enter a horse in a stakes race.

entrapped epiglottis: A condition in which the thin membrane lying below the epiglottis moves up and covers the epiglottis. The abnormality may obstruct breathing. Usually treated by surgery to cut the membrane if it impairs respiratory function.

entry: Two or more horses with common ownership (or in some cases trained by the same trainer) that are paired as a single betting unit in one race and/or are placed together by the racing secretary as part of a mutuel field. Rules on entries vary from state to state. Also known as a coupled entry, horses in a race will be in post positions 1 and 1A, 2 and 2A, etc.

epiglottis: A triangular-shaped cartilage that lies at the base of the airway just in front of the arytenoid cartilages which cover the airway during swallowing. It is normally located above (dorsal) the soft palate.

epiphysitis: An inflammation in the growth plate (physis) at the ends of the long bones (such as the cannon bone). Symptoms include swelling, tenderness and heat. Although the exact cause is unknown, contributing factors seem to be high caloric intake (either from grain or a heavily lactating mare) and a fast growth rate.

epistaxis: See bleeder.

Equibase (Company): A partnership between The Jockey Club and the Thoroughbred Racing Associations to establish and maintain an industry-owned, central database of racing records. Equibase past-performance information is used in track programs across North America.

equipment: See bandage; bar shoe; bit; blinkers; bridle; earmuffs; halter; hood; nose band; overcheck; overgirth; reins; saddle cloth; saddle pad; shadow roll; shank; stirrups; tongue tie.

equivalent odds: Mutuel price horses would pay for each $1 bet.

estrus (heat): Associated with ovulation; a mare usually is receptive to breeding during estrus. Referred to as horsing.

estrous cycle: The length of time between consecutive ovulations.

EVA (equine viral arteritis): A highly contagious disease that is characterized by swelling in the legs of all horses and swelling in the scrotum of stallions. Can cause abortion in mares and can be shed in the semen of stallions for years after infection.

evenly: Neither gaining nor losing position during a race.

exacta (or perfecta): A wager in which the first two finishers in a race, in exact order of finish, must be picked. Called an exactor in Canada.

exacta box: A wager in which all possible combinations using a given number of horses are bet on. The total number of combinations can be calculated
according to the formula x2-x, where x equals the amount of horses in the box. For example, boxing four horses would actually be 12 combinations (42-4). To arrive at the cost of the wager, multiply the total combinations by the cost of the individual wager.

exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage: See bleeder.

exercise rider: Rider who is licensed to exercise a horse during its morning training session.

Experimental Free Handicap: A year-end projection of the best North American two-year-olds of the season, put together by a panel, under the auspices of The Jockey Club. Based on performances in unrestricted races. Two lists are drawn up: one for males and one for females.

exotic (wager): Any wager other than win, place or show. For the mathematically inclined, the amount of combinations in any exotic wager can be figured by the formula n!/(n-a!), where n is the number of horses in your wager and a is the number of finishers in the wager (two in an exacta, three in a trifecta, etc.)

extended: Running at top speed.

extensor tendon: Extends the knee (carpus) joint, ankle joint, pastern and foot and flexes the elbow. The muscles begin above the knee and attach to the coffin and pastern bones.

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